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Writing and Thinking Guide: Primary Sources

What are Primary Sources?

"Primary documents" are defined by the American Historical Association’s Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct as “all forms of evidence - not just written texts, but artifacts, images, statistics, oral recollections, the built and natural environment, and many other things - that have survived as records of former times. By 'secondary literature,' we [the AHA] typically mean all subsequent interpretations of those former times based on the evidence contained in primary documents."



Voice of the Shuttle   ( VoS is woven by Alan Liu and a development team in the U.California, Santa Barbara, English Department.) Web site for Humanities Research. This site serves as a meta guide to websites of use to the scholarly community in the arts, humanities and social sciences. "VoS emphasizes both primary and secondary (or theoretical) resources." (Kent State description)

Internet History Sourcebooks Project (Fordham) The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use.

Avalon Project (Yale) Documents in Law, History, and diplomacy.  4000bce to present

Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) Digital images from archives, libraries and museums across the United States. Items can also be discovered on the DPLA timeline and map.