Meghan Ashlin, Rich. "It Depends on How You Define Integrated": Neighborhood Boundaries and Racial Integration in a Baltimore Neighborhood." Sociological Forum no. 4 (2009): 828. JSTOR Journals, EBSCOhost (accessed November 9, 2017).
There are a significant number of racially integrated neighborhoods in the United States, many of which have been stable over time. However, very little is known about the characteristics of these neighborhoods and of the residents who live in them. With data taken from a larger study of an integrated neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland, this article discusses homeowners' perceptions of their community and racial integration. Fifty semi-structured interviews were completed with 67 homeowners to investigate their perceptions and experiences of race, class, and change in their community. This study shows that statistical racial integration and perceptions of racial integrationare two different factors. Residents define true racial integration as both residential and social. As a result, homeowners reported that their neighborhood is both segregated and integrated — a type of "qualified" integration. Perceptions of racial integration are also affected by inconsistently defined neighborhood boundaries and racial clustering, block by block.
Pappoe, Yvette N. "Remedying the Effects of Government-Sanctioned Segregation in a Post-Freddie Gray Baltimore." University Of Maryland Law Journal Of Race, Religion, Gender And Class 16, (April 1, 2016): 115. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed November 9, 2017).
I. Introduction Since the civil unrest following the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old Black 1 man who suffered a spinal cord injury and died in police custody, many - including political pundits, politicians, and residents - have debated about what went wrong in Baltimore. While some commentators believe the unrest was solely in response to "police mistreatment of black men," 2 some have opined that the unrest was a product of pent up frustration caused by "crushing poverty, lack of opportunity," 3 and the denial, to Black youth in Baltimore, of "the opportunity to participate in mainstream American society." 4 This Comment argues that the aforementioned issues are a byproduct of racist government-sanctioned policies that continue to perpetuate racial and economic segregation and concentrated poverty in Black communities. For instance, in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray lived before he died, over 20 percent of the residents between the ages of 16 and 64 were unemployed in 2013, compared to 14 percent of residents in Baltimore City. 5 Additionally, over 30 percent of the homes in that neighborhood are vacant, compared to 8 percent of those in Baltimore City. 6 About 30 percent of the neighborhood's residents over 25 years of age have less than a high school diploma, compared to the less than 20 percent of residents in Baltimore City. 7 The Baltimore Sun described Freddie Gray's neighborhood as "a neighborhood where generations of crushing poverty and the war on drugs combine to ...