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Citations and Bibliographies: APA Style

Examples for Reference Pages

General Format

Author(s) last name, first initial, middle initial. (Year) Article Title. Journal Title, Volume#(issue#) pages. doi:#

**If no doi#, include instead: Retrieved from database name (unique article#). Please note, some articles do not have issue numbers, in this case just include the volume #. 

Reference Page Example

DeLaet, D. L., & Caufield, R. P. (2008). Gay marriage as a religious right: Reframing the legal debate over gay marriage in the United States. Polity, 40, 297–320. doi:10.2307/40213478

Don't forget to include a hanging indent if your citation is more than one line!


General Format

Author last name, First Initial. (Year). Title in lowercase unless there is a proper noun. Journal Name Capitalized and Italicized, Volume(Issue), pages.

Reference Page Example

Hewlett, S.J,. (2021). Ableism in academia. Theorising experiences of disabilities and chronic illnesses in higher education. Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning, 9(1),


General Format

Author(s) last name, first initial, middle initial. (Full Date) Article title. Publication Title, Volume#(Include Issue# only if paginated by issue), pages. doi:#

**If no doi#, include instead: Retrieved from URL or journal homepage.

Reference Page Example

Rich, N. (2012, November 28). Can a jellyfish unlock the secret of immortality? The New York Times. Retrieved from

In-Text Citation Example

(Rich, 2012)

General Format

Author(s) last name, first initial, middle initial. (Year of publication).  Book title. City of Publication: Publisher.  

Reference Page Example

Stein, L. L. (2006). Speech rights in America: the First Amendment, democracy, and the media. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

In-Text Citation Example

(Stein, 2006)

General Instructions

Review author last name, first initial, middle initial. (Full date of publication) Title of Review [Review of the book Book Title, by Author/Director. Periodical Title Volume# (Include Issue# only if paginated by issue), pages. doi# (or database # or URL).

Works Cited Example

Tanner, D. E. (2010, August) The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks [Review of the book The immortal life of Henreitta Lacks]. Journal of Popular Culture 43,  916–918. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5931.2010.00776_11.x

Don't forget to use a hanging indent!

General Format

Author(s) last name, first initial, middle initial. (Year of publication). Selection title. In Editor name (Ed.), Book title (pp. pages). City of Publication: Publisher. 

Reference Page Example

Hayes, D. (2010) "Parties and the media: Getting messages to voters."  In J.M. Stonecash, New directions in American political parties (pp. 44-62). New York: Routledge.

In-Text Citation Example

(Hayes, 2020)

General Format

Author(s) of document last name, first initial, middle initial. (Full date or n.d.) Title of the document. Retrieved from URL

Reference Page Example

Pike, R. (2020, July 24). How long do potatoes last? – or how to store potatoes. Retrieved March 27, 2021, from

In-Text Citation Example

(Pike, 2020)

In-Text Citations

APA in-text citations are made by incorporating information about the source into the text, followed by a parenthetical reference with specific pages cited or any additional information needed.

For full style rules and formatting, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which is available at the circulation desk for in-library use.  You can also see the following online guide for more in-text citation examples:

Basic examples:

  • In Running for My Life, Lomong (2012) describes the difficulties of beginning school at tenth grade in upstate New York (p. 110)
    • Note: Here, year is included after the author's last name and the cited page number appears in the parenthetical.
  • In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the U.S. government stopped the resettlement program that brought Sudanese "Lost Boys" to the United States (Lomong, 2012, p. 119).
    • Note: Here, author is not evident from the sentence, so the parenthetical includes both the author last name, year, and the page number.  If this is a short article, no page number is required when paraphrasing an idea or concept. 

APA Paper: Paper Basics by EasyBib

APA Style Blog, Guide and Tutorials: Provided by OWL Purdue and the American Psychological Association


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